Introduction

Leaving China & the
Journey Across the
Pacific

Cultural Traditions

Women in Early
Chinatowns

Anti-Chinese Violence
& Women's Resistance

Chinese Women at
Work

Educational
Opportunities

Women in Cultural
Work

The Great Depression
and War

Conclusion

Additional Resources


 

 

Endnotes

1: Jonathan D. Spence, The Search for Modern China (New York:  W.W. Norton & Company, 1999).

2. Judy Yung, “Reminiscences of a Gold Mountain Woman,” in Unbound Voices: A Documentary History of Chinese Women in San Francisco (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999).

3. John R. Haddadd, The Romance of China: Excursions to China in U.S. Culture: 1776-1876 (Columbia University Press, 1995).

Also see:
Sucheta Mazamdar, “Through Western Eyes: Discovering Chinese Women in America”, in A New Significance: Re-envisioning the History of the American West, ed. Clyde A. Milner (Oxford University Press, 1996), 159.

Esther Kim Lee, A History of Asian American Theatre (Cambridge University Press, 2006), 8.

New York Times, July 9, 1836, Courtesy of Timothy Hughes Rare & Early Newspapers, www.rarenewspapers.com.

4: New York Express, April 22, 1850.

5: "Remembering 1882”, Chinese Historical Society of America

6: Judy Yung, “Reminiscences of a Gold Mountain Woman,” in Unbound Voices: A Documentary History of Chinese Women in San Francisco (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999).

7: Robert Barde, “An Alleged Wife: One Immigrant in the Chinese Exclusion Era”, Prologue, Spring 2004, Vol36, No 1, http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/2004/spring/alleged-wife-1.html.

8: Encyclopedia Britannica Online, s.v. "Confucius," http://search.eb.com/eb/article-9109630.

9: Ibid.

10: Judy Yung, Unbound Feet: A Social History of Chinese Women in San Francisco (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995), 46.

11: Wang Zheng, Women in the Chinese Enlightenment: Oral and Textual Histories (Berkley: University of California Press, 1999).

12: Judy Yung, Unbound Feet: A Social History of Chinese Women in San Francisco (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995), 25, 41.

13: Ibid, 34.

14: Ping Wang, Aching for Beauty: Footbinding in China (University of Minnesota Press, 2000).

15: Connie Young Yu, “The World of Our Grandmothers,” in Making Waves: An Anthology of Writing By and About Asian Women, ed. Asian Women United of California (Beacon Press), 38-41.

16: Wang Zheng, Women in the Chinese Enlightenment: Oral and Textual Histories (Berkley: University of California Press, 1999).

Also see:
Fan Hong, Footbinding, Feminism and Freedom: the Liberation of Women’s Bodies in Modern China (London: Frank Class & Co. Limited, 1997).

17: Wang Zheng, Women in the Chinese Enlightenment: Oral and Textual Histories (Berkley: University of California Press, 1999), 36-37.

18: Jean Pfaelzer, Driven Out: The Forgotten War Against Chinese Americans (New York: Random House, 2007).

19: Judy Yung, Unbound Feet: A Social History of Chinese Women in San Francisco (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995), 111-112.

20. Ibid, #.

21: Priscilla Wegars, "Polly Bemis: Lurid Life or Literary Legend?" in Wild Women of the Old West, ed. Glenda Riley and Richard W. Etulain (Golden, CO: Fulcrum, 2003), 45-68, 200-203.

Also see:
Priscilla Wegars, Polly Bemis: A Chinese American Pioneer (Cambridge, ID: Backeddy Books, 2003).

22: Jean Pfaelzer, Driven Out: The Forgotten War Against Chinese Americans (New York: Random House, 2007), 89-101.

23: Jeffery Scott McIllwain, Organizing Crime in Chinatown: Race and Racketeering in New York City, 1890-1910 (McFarland & Company, 2004), 51.

24: Will Irwin, Pictures of Old Chinatown, ed. Arnold Genthe (New York: Moffat, Yard and Company, 1909).

25: Marlon K. Hom, Songs of Gold Mountain: Cantonese Rhymes from San Francisco Chinatown (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987).

26: Mae M. Ngai, "San Francisco's Survivors", in The New York Times, April 18, 2006, http://www.nytimes.com/2006/04/18/opinion/18ngaihed.html.

27: Lynwood Carranco, “Chinese Expulsion from Humbolt County” in The Pacific Historical Review, vol. 30, no. 4 (Nov., 1961), 329-340.

28: Jean Pfaelzer, Driven Out: The Forgotten War Against Chinese Americans (New York: Random House, 2007), 133-38, 198-209.

29: Wing Hing v. The City of Eureka, 3948 F. (9th Cir. 1886) See File 3948, NARA.

30: Jean Pfaelzer, Driven Out: The Forgotten War Against Chinese Americans (New York: Random House, 2007), 219-229.

31: Unbound Feet: A Social History of Chinese Women in San Francisco (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995).

Jean Pfaelzer, Driven Out: The Forgotten War Against Chinese Americans (New York: Random House, 2007).

32: Teaching With Documents: Using Primary Sources From the National Archives (Washington, DC: National Archives and Records Administration, 1989), 82-85.

33: Jean Pfaelzer, Driven Out: The Forgotten War Against Chinese Americans (New York: Random House, 2007), xxii-xxiv.

34: William Wong, Oakland's Chinatown (Charleston SC: Arcadia Publishing, 2004), 95.

Judy Yung, “Tiny, Tye Leung Schulze,” in Unbound Voices: A Documentary History of Chinese Women in San Francisco (Berkeley: University of California Press,1999) 281-288.

35: Ruth Pelz, Women of the Wild West: Biographies from Many Cultures (Open Hand Pub., 1994), 25-27.

36: David E. Bernstein, "Lochner, Parity, and the Chinese Laundry", in William and Mary Law Review, Vol. 41, 1999.

37: The University of Texas Institute of Texan Cultures at San Antonio, "Chinese Texans", http://texancultures.utsa.edu/txtext/chinese/chinesetexans.htm.

38: Charles J. McClain, In Search of Equality: The Chinese Struggle Against Discrimination in Nineteenth-Century America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996), 98-101.

39: Judy Yung, “Reminiscences of a Gold Mountain Woman”, in Unbound Voices: A Documentary History of Chinese Women in San Francisco (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999).

40: Connie Young Yu, “The Word of Our Grandmothers”, in Making Waves: An Anthology of Writing By and About Asian Women, ed. Asian Women United of California (Beacon Press, 1989), 38-41.

41: Wang Zheng, Women in the Chinese Enlightenment: Oral and Textual Histories (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999).

42: Judy Yung,Unbound Feet: A Social History of Chinese Women in San Francisco (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995), 209-222.

43: Vicki L. Ruiz, “Tapestries of Resistance”, in From the Grassroots to the Supreme Court: Brown v. Board of Education and American Democracy, ed. Peter F. Lau, 46-47.

44: Jean Pfaelzer, Driven Out: The Forgotten War Against Chinese Americans (New York: Random House, 2007), 266-267.

45: Alta, April 16, 1885.

46: Judy Yung, “Mary Tape, An Outspoken Woman”, in Unbound Voices: A Documentary History of Chinese Women in San Francisco (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999).

47: Harper’s Weekly, July 24, 1909.

48: Connie Anne Shemo, An Army of Women: The Medical Ministries of Kang Cheng and Shi Meiyi, 1873-1937 (State University of New York at Binghamton, 2002).

49: Carman C. Curton, “Sui Sin Far (Edith Maude Eaton) (1865-1914)” in American Women Writers, 1900-1945: A Bio-Bibliographical Critical Sourcebook, ed. Laurie Champion (Greenwood Press, 2000), 333-37.

Diana Birchall, Onoto Watanna: The Story of Winifred Eaton (University of Illinois Press, 2001).

50: Judy Yung, “I Am Growing More Chinese—Each Passing Year! (1934)”, in Unbound Voices: A Documentary History of Chinese Women in San Francisco (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999).

51: Philip Leibfried and Chei Mi Lane, Anna May Wong: A Complete Guide to Her Film, Stage, Radio and Television Work (McFarland & Company, 2003).

52: Jonathan D. Spence, The Search for Modern China (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1999).

53: Theodora Chan Wang, “Chinese Women’s Association Condensed Report for the Years 1932-1936”, in Unbound Voices: A Documentary History of Chinese Women in San Francisco, ed. Judy Yung (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999).

54: Doris Weatherford, A History of Women in the United States: State by State Reference, vol. 2 (Danbury, CT: Grolier Academic Scholastic, 2004), 355-56.

55: From personal correspondence with Lonnie Young’s cousin, historian Connie Young Yu.

56: WAC School of Army Administration Archives at the University of Central Arkansas.

57: Jean Ebbert and Marie-Beth Hall, Crossed Currents: Navy Women from WWI to Tailhook (New York: Brassey’s/Macmillian, 1993), 30-31.

58: Marianne Verges, On Silver Wings: The Women of the Airforce Service Pilots (New York: Ballentine Books, 1991), 227.

59: U.S. Department of State, "Repeal of the Chinese Exclusion Act, 1943", http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ho/time/wwii/86552.htm.


Additional Resources

George Anthony Peffer, If They Don’t Bring Their Women Here: Chinese Female Immigration Before Exclusion (Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1999).

Shirley Hune and Gail Nomura, ed.s, Asian Pacific Islander American Women: A Historical Anthology (NY:  New York University Press, 2003).

Him Mark Lai, Becoming Chinese American: A History of Communities and Institutions (NY: Rowman and Littlefield, 2004).

Huping Ling, Surviving on the Gold Mountain (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1998).

Nayan Shah, Contagious Divides: Epidemics and Race in San Francisco’s Chinatown (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001).

Sui Sin Far, Mrs. Spring Fragrance and Other Writings, ed. Amy Ling and Annette White-Parks (Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1995).

Benson Tong, Unsubmissive Women: Chinese Prostitutes in Nineteenth-Century San Francisco (Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1994).

 

Acknowledgments

 

Exhibit curated by Dr. Jean Pfaelzer, advised by Doris Weatherford, researched by Shi Chen, Meghan Hindmarch, and Claire Love, and designed by Nikki Emser.

 


© 2008 National Women's History Museum